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The International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO) developed this brief to provide the HIV community with current information and analysis of new and updated clinical data on the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in preventing HIV transmission to sexual partners of people living with HIV. While the health benefits of treatment will always be the primary purpose of ART, it is vital that the secondary benefits to people living with HIV and their sexual partners be fully understood and communicated. The brief is organized as follows:

  1. Introduction
  • Overview of the rationale for this brief as well as a glossary of key terms
  1. HIV Basics: Prevention, Sexual Transmission and the Dual Role of Anti-retrovirals
  • Overview of current global information on sexual transmission, combination HIV prevention packages and the dual role of ART in improving the health of people living with HIV and preventing sexual transmission to sexual partners
  1. The Science of HIV Transmission: What’s New?
  • Summary of clinical findings released in 2016 and early 2017 on the role of ART in preventing transmission to sexual partners of people living with HIV
  • Brief review of the clinical evidence regarding the use of ARVs as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by HIV-negative people to prevent HIV acquisition
  1. Advocacy for Access to ART and HIV diagnostics
  • Analysis of implications of new and updated clinical findings in developing advocacy strategies to address disparities in access to HIV diagnostics including viral load testing and ART.
  1. Advocacy for Accurate, Rights-based HIV Education: Challenging HIV Stigma
  • Analysis of implications of new and updated clinical findings in developing rights-based HIV education for people living with HIV
  1. The Population Potential of ARVs as Prevention
  • Analysis of the population potential of ARVs in reducing or eliminating sexual transmission of HIV
  1. Law Reform on Criminalization of HIV Non-Disclosure
  • Implications for advocacy for law reform efforts aimed at ending the unjust, overly-broad application of general and HIV-specific laws which criminalize people living with HIV
  • ICASO’s position is consistent with international guidance on restricting the use of criminal law to exceptional circumstances of intentional, actual transmission.
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