This discussion paper presents a brief review of some of the current transition literature, paired with interview data from three country case studies. It examines Global Fund transitions in three different regions and at varying stages of progress. Serbia is presented as a country in the post-transition phase, after the Global Fund announced the country would no longer be eligible for support. The case of Thailand is shared as a mid-transition country, currently in the middle of a two-year handover, which ends after its current grant. Case study three offers a close-up of South Africa, a country in the pre-transition phase, not yet exiting the Global Fund system, but experiencing allocation reductions, while exploring sustainable financing mechanisms for the future.